The geodesic dome was invented in the 1950s by American engineer and architect Buckminster Fuller. This type of dome is structured on triangles and other geometric shapes instead of the arches. The Caspary Auditorium in New York and the Eden Project in England are examples of geodesic domes.
The monolithic dome is made of one solid piece of material. Its construction begins with a circular concrete foundation, where a canvas “airform” is attached to the slab. The canvas is then inflated using special fans, thus forming the shape of the dome. After that, the interior is covered with a layer of polyurethane foam insulation . A steel bar is enclosed in the foam to give support to the dome. Finally, a special mix of concrete is spread over the interior of the building.
The bow dome is made of wood bows, which can be substituted by aluminum, and canvas. This type of dome is rather archaic, yet efficient. It represent the first habitation built by humans. There are different types of bow domes, which depends on how the bow is placed. Half sphere or uni bow is the most common. Cross-tie, peak-tie and bell are other types of bow dome, more appropriate for regions with lots of rainfall or snow.